Configuration of various options follows the successful installation. An option can beconfigured by re-entering the configuration options before booting the new FreeBSD systemor after installation using /stand/sysinstall and selectingConfigure.
If you previously configured PPP for an FTP install, this screen will not display andcan be configured later as described above.
For detailed information on Local Area Networks and configuring FreeBSD as agateway/router refer to the Advanced Networkingchapter.
User Confirmation Requested Would you like to configure any Ethernet or SLIP/PPP network devices? [ Yes ] No
To configure a network device, select [ Yes ] and pressEnter. Otherwise, select [ No ] tocontinue.
Select the interface to be configured with the arrow keys and press
User Confirmation Requested Do you want to try IPv6 configuration of the interface? Yes [ No ]
In this private local area network, the current Internet type protocol (
If you are connected to an existing IPv6 networkwith an RA server, then choose
User Confirmation Requested Do you want to try DHCP configuration of the interface? Yes [ No ]
If DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is not required select
Selecting [ Yes ] will execute
The following Network Configuration screen shows the configuration of the Ethernetdevice for a system that will act as the gateway for a Local Area Network.
Use Tab to select the information fields and fill in appropriateinformation:
Use Tab to select
User Confirmation Requested Would you like to Bring Up the ed0 interface right now? [ Yes ] No
Choosing [ Yes ] and pressing
User Confirmation Requested Do you want this machine to function as a network gateway? [ Yes ] No
If the machine will be acting as the gateway for a local area network and forwardingpackets between other machines then select [ Yes ] andpress Enter. If the machine is a node on a network then select[ No ] and press Enter tocontinue.
User Confirmation RequestedDo you want to configure inetd and the network services that it provides? Yes [ No ]
If [ No ] is selected, various services such
These services can be enabled after installation by editing
Select [ Yes ] if you wish to configure these servicesduring install. An additional confirmation will display:
User Confirmation RequestedThe Internet Super Server (inetd) allows a number of simple Internetservices to be enabled, including finger, ftp and telnetd. Enablingthese services may increase risk of security problems by increasingthe exposure of your system.With this in mind, do you wish to enable inetd? [ Yes ] No
Select [ Yes ] to continue.
User Confirmation Requestedinetd(8) relies on its configuration file, /etc/inetd.conf, to determinewhich of its Internet services will be available. The default FreeBSDinetd.conf(5) leaves all services disabled by default, so they must bespecifically enabled in the configuration file before they willfunction, even once inetd(8) is enabled. Note that services forIPv6 must be separately enabled from IPv4 services.Select [Yes] now to invoke an editor on /etc/inetd.conf, or [No] touse the current settings. [ Yes ] No
Selecting [ Yes ] will allow adding services bydeleting the # at the beginning of a line.
After adding the desired services, pressing Esc will display amenu which will allow exiting and saving the changes.
User Confirmation Requested Do you want to have anonymous FTP access to this machine? Yes [ No ]
Selecting the default [ No ] and pressing
Anyone can access your machine if you elect to allow anonymous FTP connections. Thesecurity implications should be considered before enabling this option. For moreinformation about security see Chapter 10.
To allow anonymous FTP, use the arrow keys to select [ Yes] and press Enter. The following screen (or similar) willdisplay:
Pressing F1 will display the help:
This screen allows you to configure the anonymous FTP user.The following configuration values are editable:UID: The user ID you wish to assign to the anonymous FTP user. All files uploaded will be owned by this ID.Group: Which group you wish the anonymous FTP user to be in.Comment: String describing this user in /etc/passwdFTP Root Directory: Where files available for anonymous FTP will be kept.Upload subdirectory: Where files uploaded by anonymous FTP users will go.
The ftp root directory will be put in /var by default. Ifyou do not have enough room there for the anticipated FTP needs, the
When you are satisfied with the values, press Enter tocontinue.
User Confirmation Requested Create a welcome message file for anonymous FTP users? [ Yes ] No
If you select [ Yes ] and press
This is a text editor called ee. Use the instructions tochange the message or change the message later using a text editor of your choice. Notethe file name/location at the bottom of the editor screen.
Press Esc and a pop-up menu will default to
Network File System (NFS) allows sharing of files across a network. A machine can beconfigured as a server, a client, or both. Refer to Section20.6 for a more information.
User Confirmation Requested Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS server? Yes [ No ]
If there is no need for a Network File System server, select [No ] and press Enter.
If [ Yes ] is chosen, a message will pop-up indicatingthat the exports file must be created.
MessageOperating as an NFS server means that you must first configure an/etc/exports file to indicate which hosts are allowed certain kinds ofaccess to your local filesystems.Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports [ OK ]
Press Enter to continue. A text editor will start allowing theexports file to be created and edited.
Use the instructions to add the actual exported filesystems now or later using a texteditor of your choice. Note the file name/location at the bottom of the editorscreen.
Press Esc and a pop-up menu will default to
The NFS client allows your machine to access NFS servers.
User Confirmation Requested Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS client? Yes [ No ]
With the arrow keys, select [ Yes ] or
A ``security profile'' is a set of configuration options that attempts to achieve thedesired ratio of security to convenience by enabling and disabling certain programs andother settings. The more severe the security profile, the fewer programs will be enabledby default. This is one of the basic principles of security: do not run anything exceptwhat you must.
Please note that the security profile is just a default setting. All programs can beenabled and disabled after you have installed FreeBSD by editing or adding theappropriate line(s) to /etc/rc.conf. For more information,please see the
The following table describes what each of the security profiles does. The columns arethe choices you have for a security profile, and the rows are the program or feature thatthe profile enables or disables.
Table 2-4. Possible Security Profiles
User Confirmation Requested Do you want to select a default security profile for this host (select No for "medium" security)? [ Yes ] No
Selecting [ No ] and pressing
Selecting [ Yes ] and pressing
Press F1 to display the help. Press Enterto return to selection menu.
Use the arrow keys to choose Medium unless your aresure that another level is required for your needs. With
An appropriate confirmation message will display depending on which security settingwas chosen.
MessageModerate security settings have been selected.Sendmail and SSHd have been enabled, securelevels aredisabled, and NFS server setting have been left intact.PLEASE NOTE that this still does not save you from havingto properly secure your system in other ways or exercisedue diligence in your administration, this simply picksa standard set of out-of-box defaults to start with.To change any of these settings later, edit /etc/rc.conf [OK]
MessageExtreme security settings have been selected.Sendmail, SSHd, and NFS services have been disabled, andsecurelevels have been enabled.PLEASE NOTE that this still does not save you from havingto properly secure your system in other ways or exercisedue diligence in your administration, this simply picksa more secure set of out-of-box defaults to start with.To change any of these settings later, edit /etc/rc.conf [OK]
Press Enter to continue with the post-installationconfiguration.
There are several options available to customize the system console.
User Confirmation Requested Would you like to customize your system console settings? [ Yes ] No
To view and configure the options, select [ Yes ] andpress Enter.
A commonly used option is the screen saver. Use the arrow keys to select
Select the desired screen saver using the arrow keys and then press
The default time interval is 300 seconds. To change the time interval, select
The value can be changed, then select [ OK ]and press Enter to return to the System Console Configurationmenu.
Selecting Exit and pressing
Setting the time zone for your machine will allow it to automatically correct for anyregional time changes and perform other time zone related functions properly.
The example shown is for a machine located in the Eastern time zone of the UnitedStates. Your selections will vary according to your geographical location.
User Confirmation Requested Would you like to set this machine's time zone now? [ Yes ] No
Select [ Yes ] and press Enter toset the time zone.
User Confirmation Requested Is this machine's CMOS clock set to UTC? If it is set to local time or you don't know, please choose NO here! Yes [ No ]
Select [ Yes ] or [ No ]according to how the machine's clock is configured and press
The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing
Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and press
The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys and pressing
Confirmation Does the abbreviation 'EDT' look reasonable? [ Yes ] No
Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct. If it looks okay, press
User Confirmation Requested Would you like to enable Linux binary compatibility? [ Yes ] No
Selecting [ Yes ] and pressing
If installing by FTP, the machine will need to be connected to the Internet. Sometimesa remote ftp site will not have all the distributions like the Linux binarycompatibility. This can be installed later if necessary.
This option will allow you to cut and paste text in the console and user programs witha 3-button mouse. If using a 2-button mouse, refer to manual page,
User Confirmation Requested Does this system have a non-USB mouse attached to it? [ Yes ] No
Select [ Yes ] for a non-USB mouse or
Use the arrow keys to select Type and press
The mouse used in this example is a PS/2 type, so the default
Use the arrow keys to select Port and press
This system had a PS/2 mouse, so the default PS/2 wasappropriate. To change the port, use the arrow keys and then press
Last, use the arrow keys to select Enable, and pressEnter to enable and test the mouse daemon.
Move the mouse around the screen and verify the cursor shown responds properly. If itdoes, select [ Yes ] and press
Select Exit with the arrow keys and press
Configuring network services can be a daunting task for new users if they lackprevious knowledge in this area. Networking, including the Internet, is critical to allmodern operating systems including FreeBSD; as a result, it is very useful to have someunderstanding FreeBSD's extensive networking capabilities. Doing this during theinstallation will ensure users have some understanding of the various services availableto them.
Network services are programs that accept input from anywhere on the network. Everyeffort is made to make sure these programs will not do anything ``harmful''.Unfortunately, programmers are not perfect and through time there have been cases wherebugs in network services have been exploited by attackers to do bad things. It isimportant that you only enable the network services you know that you need. If in doubtit is best if you do not enable a network service until you find out that you do need it.You can always enable it later by re-running sysinstall or byusing the features provided by the /etc/rc.conf file.
Selecting the Networking option will display a menusimilar to the one below:
The first option, Interfaces, was previously coveredduring the Section 2.9.1, thus thisoption can safely be ignored.
Selecting the AMD option adds support for theBSD automatic mount utility. This is usually used inconjunction with the NFS protocol (see below) forautomatically mounting remote file systems. No special configuration is requiredhere.
Next in line is the AMD Flags option. When selected,a menu will pop up for you to enter specific AMDflags. The menu already contains a set of default options:
-a /.amd_mnt -l syslog /host /etc/amd.map /net /etc/amd.map
The -a option sets the default mount location which isspecified here as /.amd_mnt. The -loption specifies the default log file; however, when
The Anon FTP option permits anonymous
The Gateway configuration menu will set the machineup to be a gateway as explained previously. This can be used to unset the
The Inetd option can be used to configure orcompletely disable the
The Mail option is used to configure the system'sdefault MTA or Mail Transfer Agent. Selecting thisoption will bring up the following menu:
Here you are offered a choice as to which MTA toinstall and set as the default. An MTA is nothing morethan a mail server which delivers email to users on the system or the Internet.
Selecting Sendmail will install the popular
After selecting an MTA, or choosing not to selectan MTA, the network configuration menu will appear with the next option being
The NFS client option will configure the system tocommunicate with a server via NFS. An
Below that option is the NFS server option,permitting you to set the system up as an NFS server.This adds the required information to start up the RPCremote procedure call services. RPC is used tocoordinate connections between hosts and programs.
Next in line is the Ntpdate option, which deals withtime synchronization. When selected, a menu like the one below shows up:
From this menu, select the server which is the closest to your location. Selecting aclose one will make the time synchronization more accurate as a server further from yourlocation may have more connection latency.
The next option is the PCNFSD selection. Thisoption will install the
Now you must scroll down a bit to see the other options:
As you progress down the list the next item here is
Next in line is the Rwhod option which, whenselected, will start the
The next to the last option in the list is for the
Finally there is the TCP Extensions option. Thisenables the TCP Extensions defined in
Now that you have configured the network services, you can scroll up to the very topitem which is Exit and continue on to the nextconfiguration section.
In order to use a graphical user interface such as KDE,
To see whether your video card is supported, check the
User Confirmation Requested Would you like to configure your X server at this time? [ Yes ] No
If you have graphics card and monitor information, select [Yes ] and press Enter to proceed with configuring the Xserver.
There are several ways to configure the X server. Use the arrow keys to select one ofthe methods and press Enter. Be sure to read all instructionscarefully.
The xf86cfg and xf86cfg-textmode methods may make the screen go dark and take a few seconds to start. Bepatient.
The following will illustrate the use of the xf86configconfiguration tool. The configuration choices you make will depend on the hardware in thesystem so your choices will probably be different than those shown:
Message You have configured and been running the mouse daemon. Choose "/dev/sysmouse" as the mouse port and "SysMouse" or "MouseSystems" as the mouse protocol in the X configuration utility. [ OK ] [ Press enter to continue ]
This indicates that the mouse daemon previously configured has been detected. Press
Starting xf86config will display a brief introduction:
This program will create a basic XF86Config file, based on menu selections youmake.The XF86Config file usually resides in /usr/X11R6/etc/X11 or /etc/X11. A sampleXF86Config file is supplied with XFree86; it is configured for a standardVGA card and monitor with 640x480 resolution. This program will ask for apathname when it is ready to write the file.You can either take the sample XF86Config as a base and edit it for yourconfiguration, or let this program produce a base XF86Config file for yourconfiguration and fine-tune it.Before continuing with this program, make sure you know what video cardyou have, and preferably also the chipset it uses and the amount of videomemory on your video card. SuperProbe may be able to help with this.Press enter to continue, or ctrl-c to abort.
Pressing Enter will start the mouse configuration. Be sure tofollow the instructions and use ``Mouse Systems'' as the mouse protocol and
First specify a mouse protocol type. Choose one from the following list: 1. Microsoft compatible (2-button protocol) 2. Mouse Systems (3-button protocol) & FreeBSD moused protocol 3. Bus Mouse 4. PS/2 Mouse 5. Logitech Mouse (serial, old type, Logitech protocol) 6. Logitech MouseMan (Microsoft compatible) 7. MM Series 8. MM HitTablet 9. Microsoft IntelliMouseIf you have a two-button mouse, it is most likely of type 1, and if you havea three-button mouse, it can probably support both protocol 1 and 2. There aretwo main varieties of the latter type: mice with a switch to select theprotocol, and mice that default to 1 and require a button to be held atboot-time to select protocol 2. Some mice can be convinced to do 2 by sendinga special sequence to the serial port (see the ClearDTR/ClearRTS options).Enter a protocol number: 2You have selected a Mouse Systems protocol mouse. If your mouse is normallyin Microsoft-compatible mode, enabling the ClearDTR and ClearRTS optionsmay cause it to switch to Mouse Systems mode when the server starts.Please answer the following question with either 'y' or 'n'.Do you want to enable ClearDTR and ClearRTS? nYou have selected a three-button mouse protocol. It is recommended that youdo not enable Emulate3Buttons, unless the third button doesn't work.Please answer the following question with either 'y' or 'n'.Do you want to enable Emulate3Buttons? yNow give the full device name that the mouse is connected to, for example/dev/tty00. Just pressing enter will use the default, /dev/mouse.On FreeBSD, the default is /dev/sysmouse.Mouse device: /dev/sysmouse
The keyboard is the next item to be configured. A generic 101-key model is shown forillustration. Any name may be used for the variant or simply press
Please select one of the following keyboard types that is the betterdescription of your keyboard. If nothing really matches,choose 1 (Generic 101-key PC) 1 Generic 101-key PC 2 Generic 102-key (Intl) PC 3 Generic 104-key PC 4 Generic 105-key (Intl) PC 5 Dell 101-key PC 6 Everex STEPnote 7 Keytronic FlexPro 8 Microsoft Natural 9 Northgate OmniKey 101 10 Winbook Model XP5 11 Japanese 106-key 12 PC-98xx Series 13 Brazilian ABNT2 14 HP Internet 15 Logitech iTouch 16 Logitech Cordless Desktop Pro 17 Logitech Internet Keyboard 18 Logitech Internet Navigator Keyboard 19 Compaq Internet 20 Microsoft Natural Pro 21 Genius Comfy KB-16M 22 IBM Rapid Access 23 IBM Rapid Access II 24 Chicony Internet Keyboard 25 Dell Internet Keyboard Enter a number to choose the keyboard.1Please select the layout corresponding to your keyboard 1 U.S. English 2 U.S. English w/ ISO9995-3 3 U.S. English w/ deadkeys 4 Albanian 5 Arabic 6 Armenian 7 Azerbaidjani 8 Belarusian 9 Belgian 10 Bengali 11 Brazilian 12 Bulgarian 13 Burmese 14 Canadian 15 Croatian 16 Czech 17 Czech (qwerty) 18 Danish Enter a number to choose the country.Press enter for the next page1Please enter a variant name for 'us' layout. Or just press enterfor default variantusPlease answer the following question with either 'y' or 'n'.Do you want to select additional XKB options (group switcher,group indicator, etc.)? n
Next, we proceed to the configuration for the monitor. Do not exceed the ratings ofyour monitor. Damage could occur. If you have any doubts, do the configuration after youhave the information.
Now we want to set the specifications of the monitor. The two criticalparameters are the vertical refresh rate, which is the rate at which thewhole screen is refreshed, and most importantly the horizontal sync rate,which is the rate at which scanlines are displayed.The valid range for horizontal sync and vertical sync should be documentedin the manual of your monitor. If in doubt, check the monitor database/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc/Monitors to see if your monitor is there.Press enter to continue, or ctrl-c to abort.You must indicate the horizontal sync range of your monitor. You can eitherselect one of the predefined ranges below that correspond to industry-standard monitor types, or give a specific range.It is VERY IMPORTANT that you do not specify a monitor type with a horizontalsync range that is beyond the capabilities of your monitor. If in doubt,choose a conservative setting. hsync in kHz; monitor type with characteristic modes 1 31.5; Standard VGA, 640x480 @ 60 Hz 2 31.5 - 35.1; Super VGA, 800x600 @ 56 Hz 3 31.5, 35.5; 8514 Compatible, 1024x768 @ 87 Hz interlaced (no 800x600) 4 31.5, 35.15, 35.5; Super VGA, 1024x768 @ 87 Hz interlaced, 800x600 @ 56 Hz 5 31.5 - 37.9; Extended Super VGA, 800x600 @ 60 Hz, 640x480 @ 72 Hz 6 31.5 - 48.5; Non-Interlaced SVGA, 1024x768 @ 60 Hz, 800x600 @ 72 Hz 7 31.5 - 57.0; High Frequency SVGA, 1024x768 @ 70 Hz 8 31.5 - 64.3; Monitor that can do 1280x1024 @ 60 Hz 9 31.5 - 79.0; Monitor that can do 1280x1024 @ 74 Hz10 31.5 - 82.0; Monitor that can do 1280x1024 @ 76 Hz11 Enter your own horizontal sync rangeEnter your choice (1-11): 6You must indicate the vertical sync range of your monitor. You can eitherselect one of the predefined ranges below that correspond to industry-standard monitor types, or give a specific range. For interlaced modes,the number that counts is the high one (e.g. 87 Hz rather than 43 Hz). 1 50-70 2 50-90 3 50-100 4 40-150 5 Enter your own vertical sync rangeEnter your choice: 2You must now enter a few identification/description strings, namely anidentifier, a vendor name, and a model name. Just pressing enter will fillin default names.The strings are free-form, spaces are allowed.Enter an identifier for your monitor definition: Hitachi
The selection of a video card driver from a list is next. If you pass your card on thelist, continue to press Enter and the list will repeat. Only anexcerpt from the list is shown:
Now we must configure video card specific settings. At this point you canchoose to make a selection out of a database of video card definitions.Because there can be variation in Ramdacs and clock generators evenbetween cards of the same model, it is not sensible to blindly copythe settings (e.g. a Device section). For this reason, after you make aselection, you will still be asked about the components of the card, withthe settings from the chosen database entry presented as a strong hint.The database entries include information about the chipset, what driver torun, the Ramdac and ClockChip, and comments that will be included in theDevice section. However, a lot of definitions only hint about what driverto run (based on the chipset the card uses) and are untested.If you can't find your card in the database, there's nothing to worry about.You should only choose a database entry that is exactly the same model asyour card; choosing one that looks similar is just a bad idea (e.g. aGemStone Snail 64 may be as different from a GemStone Snail 64+ in terms ofhardware as can be).Do you want to look at the card database? y288 Matrox Millennium G200 8MB mgag200289 Matrox Millennium G200 SD 16MB mgag200290 Matrox Millennium G200 SD 4MB mgag200291 Matrox Millennium G200 SD 8MB mgag200292 Matrox Millennium G400 mgag400293 Matrox Millennium II 16MB mga2164w294 Matrox Millennium II 4MB mga2164w295 Matrox Millennium II 8MB mga2164w296 Matrox Mystique mga1064sg297 Matrox Mystique G200 16MB mgag200298 Matrox Mystique G200 4MB mgag200299 Matrox Mystique G200 8MB mgag200300 Matrox Productiva G100 4MB mgag100301 Matrox Productiva G100 8MB mgag100302 MediaGX mediagx303 MediaVision Proaxcel 128 ET6000304 Mirage Z-128 ET6000305 Miro CRYSTAL VRX Verite 1000Enter a number to choose the corresponding card definition.Press enter for the next page, q to continue configuration.288Your selected card definition:Identifier: Matrox Millennium G200 8MBChipset: mgag200Driver: mgaDo NOT probe clocks or use any Clocks line.Press enter to continue, or ctrl-c to abort.Now you must give information about your video card. This will be used forthe "Device" section of your video card in XF86Config.You must indicate how much video memory you have. It is probably a goodidea to use the same approximate amount as that detected by the server youintend to use. If you encounter problems that are due to the used servernot supporting the amount memory you have (e.g. ATI Mach64 is limited to1024K with the SVGA server), specify the maximum amount supported by theserver.How much video memory do you have on your video card: 1 256K 2 512K 3 1024K 4 2048K 5 4096K 6 OtherEnter your choice: 6Amount of video memory in Kbytes: 8192You must now enter a few identification/description strings, namely anidentifier, a vendor name, and a model name. Just pressing enter will fillin default names (possibly from a card definition).Your card definition is Matrox Millennium G200 8MB.The strings are free-form, spaces are allowed.Enter an identifier for your video card definition:
Next, the video modes are set for the resolutions desired. Typically, useful rangesare 640x480, 800x600, and 1024x768 but those are a function of video card capability,monitor size, and eye comfort. When selecting a color depth, select the highest mode thatyour card will support.
For each depth, a list of modes (resolutions) is defined. The defaultresolution that the server will start-up with will be the first listedmode that can be supported by the monitor and card.Currently it is set to:"640x480" "800x600" "1024x768" "1280x1024" for 8-bit"640x480" "800x600" "1024x768" "1280x1024" for 16-bit"640x480" "800x600" "1024x768" "1280x1024" for 24-bitModes that cannot be supported due to monitor or clock constraints willbe automatically skipped by the server. 1 Change the modes for 8-bit (256 colors) 2 Change the modes for 16-bit (32K/64K colors) 3 Change the modes for 24-bit (24-bit color) 4 The modes are OK, continue.Enter your choice: 2Select modes from the following list: 1 "640x400" 2 "640x480" 3 "800x600" 4 "1024x768" 5 "1280x1024" 6 "320x200" 7 "320x240" 8 "400x300" 9 "1152x864" a "1600x1200" b "1800x1400" c "512x384"Please type the digits corresponding to the modes that you want to select.For example, 432 selects "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480", with adefault mode of 1024x768.Which modes? 432You can have a virtual screen (desktop), which is screen area that is largerthan the physical screen and which is panned by moving the mouse to the edgeof the screen. If you don't want virtual desktop at a certain resolution,you cannot have modes listed that are larger. Each color depth can have adifferently-sized virtual screenPlease answer the following question with either 'y' or 'n'.Do you want a virtual screen that is larger than the physical screen? nFor each depth, a list of modes (resolutions) is defined. The defaultresolution that the server will start-up with will be the first listedmode that can be supported by the monitor and card.Currently it is set to:"640x480" "800x600" "1024x768" "1280x1024" for 8-bit"1024x768" "800x600" "640x480" for 16-bit"640x480" "800x600" "1024x768" "1280x1024" for 24-bitModes that cannot be supported due to monitor or clock constraints willbe automatically skipped by the server. 1 Change the modes for 8-bit (256 colors) 2 Change the modes for 16-bit (32K/64K colors) 3 Change the modes for 24-bit (24-bit color) 4 The modes are OK, continue.Enter your choice: 4Please specify which color depth you want to use by default: 1 1 bit (monochrome) 2 4 bits (16 colors) 3 8 bits (256 colors) 4 16 bits (65536 colors) 5 24 bits (16 million colors) Enter a number to choose the default depth.4
Finally, the configuration needs to be saved. Be sure to enter
I am going to write the XF86Config file now. Make sure you don't accidentlyoverwrite a previously configured one.Shall I write it to /etc/X11/XF86Config? y
If the configuration fails, you can try the configuration again by selecting
User Confirmation RequestedThe XFree86 configuration process seems to havefailed. Would you like to try again? [ Yes ] No
If you have trouble configuring
The default setting which allows the server to be killed is the hotkey sequence
The default setting that allows video mode switching will permit changing of the modewhile running X with the hotkey sequence Ctrl+
After installation, the display can be adjusted for height, width, or centering byusing xvidtune after you have
There are warnings that improper settings can damage your equipment. Heed them. If indoubt, do not do it. Instead, use the monitor controls to adjust the display for XWindow. There may be some display differences when switching back to text mode, but it isbetter than damaging equipment.
Following a successful
There are a variety of window managers available. They range from very basicenvironments to full desktop environments with a large suite of software. Some requireonly minimal disk space and low memory while others with more features require much more.The best way to determine which is most suitable for you is to try a few different ones.Those are available from the ports collection or as packages and can be added afterinstallation.
You can select one of the popular desktops to be installed and configured as thedefault desktop. This will allow you to start it right after installation.
Use the arrow keys to select a desktop and press Enter.Installation of the selected desktop will proceed.
Packages are pre-compiled binaries and are a convenient way to install software.
Installation of one package is shown for purposes of illustration. Additional packagescan also be added at this time if desired. After installation
User Confirmation Requested The FreeBSD package collection is a collection of hundreds of ready-to-run applications, from text editors to games to WEB servers and more. Would you like to browse the collection now? [ Yes ] No
Selecting [ Yes ] and pressing
Only packages on the current installation media are available for installation at anygiven time.
All packages available will be displayed if All isselected or you can select a particular category. Highlight your selection with the arrowkeys and press Enter.
A menu will display showing all the packages available for the selection made:
The bash shell is shown selected. Select as many as desiredby highlighting the package and pressing the Space key. A shortdescription of each package will appear in the lower left corner of the screen.
Pressing the Tab key will toggle between the last selectedpackage, [ OK ], and
When you have finished marking the packages for installation, press
The left and right arrow keys will also toggle between
Use the Tab and arrow keys to select [Install ] and press Enter. You will then need to confirmthat you want to install the packages:
Selecting [ OK ] and pressing
The final configuration continues after packages are installed. If you end up notselecting any packages, and wish to return to the final configuration, select
You should add at least one user during the installation so that you can use thesystem without being logged in as root. The root partition isgenerally small and running applications as root can quicklyfill it. A bigger danger is noted below:
User Confirmation Requested Would you like to add any initial user accounts to the system? Adding at least one account for yourself at this stage is suggested since working as the "root" user is dangerous (it is easy to do things which adversely affect the entire system). [ Yes ] No
Select [ Yes ] and press Enter tocontinue with adding a user.
Select User with the arrow keys and press
The following descriptions will appear in the lower part of the screen as the itemsare selected with Tab to assist with entering the requiredinformation:
The login shell was changed from /bin/sh to
The user was also added to the wheel group to be able tobecome a superuser with root privileges.
When you are satisfied, press [ OK ] and theUser and Group Management menu will redisplay:
Groups can also be added at this time if specific needs are known. Otherwise, this maybe accessed through using /stand/sysinstall after installationis completed.
When you are finished adding users, select Exit withthe arrow keys and press Enter to continue the installation.
Message Now you must set the system manager's password. This is the password you'll use to log in as "root". [ OK ] [ Press enter to continue ]
Press Enter to set the rootpassword.
The password will need to be typed in twice correctly. Needless to say, make sure youhave a way of finding the password if you forget.
Changing local password for root. New password : Retype new password :
The installation will continue after the password is successfully entered.
If you need to configure additional network devices or any other configuration, youcan do it at this point or after installation with
User Confirmation Requested Visit the general configuration menu for a chance to set any last options? Yes [ No ]
Select [ No ] with the arrow keys and press
Select [X Exit Install] with the arrow keys and pressEnter. You will be asked to confirm exiting the installation:
User Confirmation Requested Are you sure you wish to exit? The system will reboot (be sure to remove any floppies from the drives). [ Yes ] No
Select [ Yes ] and remove the floppy if booting fromthe floppy. The CDROM drive is locked until the machine starts to reboot. The CDROM driveis then unlocked and the disk can be removed from drive (quickly).
The system will reboot so watch for any error messages that may appear.
If everything went well, you will see messages scroll off the screen and you willarrive at a login prompt. You can view the content of the messages by pressing
The entire message may not display (buffer limitation) but it can be viewed from thecommand line after logging in by typing dmesg at the prompt.
Login using the username/password you set during installation (
Typical boot messages (version information omitted):
Copyright (c) 1992-2002 The FreeBSD Project. Copyright (c) 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. Timecounter "i8254" frequency 1193182 HzCPU: AMD-K6(tm) 3D processor (300.68-MHz 586-class CPU) Origin = "AuthenticAMD" Id = 0x580 Stepping = 0 Features=0x8001bf<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,MCE,CX8,MMX> AMD Features=0x80000800<SYSCALL,3DNow!> real memory = 268435456 (262144K bytes) config> di sn0 config> di lnc0 config> di le0 config> di ie0 config> di fe0 config> di cs0 config> di bt0 config> di aic0 config> di aha0 config> di adv0 config> q avail memory = 256311296 (250304K bytes)Preloaded elf kernel "kernel" at 0xc0491000. Preloaded userconfig_script "/boot/kernel.conf" at 0xc049109c. md0: Malloc disk Using $PIR table, 4 entries at 0xc00fde60npx0: <math processor> on motherboard npx0: INT 16 interface pcib0: <Host to PCI bridge> on motherboard pci0: <PCI bus> on pcib0 pcib1: <VIA 82C598MVP (Apollo MVP3) PCI-PCI (AGP) bridge> at device 1.0 on pci0 pci1: <PCI bus> on pcib1 pci1: <Matrox MGA G200 AGP graphics accelerator> at 0.0 irq 11 isab0: <VIA 82C586 PCI-ISA bridge> at device 7.0 on pci0 isa0: <ISA bus> on isab0 atapci0: <VIA 82C586 ATA33 controller> port 0xe000-0xe00f at device 7.1 on pci0 ata0: at 0x1f0 irq 14 on atapci0 ata1: at 0x170 irq 15 on atapci0 uhci0: <VIA 83C572 USB controller> port 0xe400-0xe41f irq 10 at device 7.2 on pci0 usb0: <VIA 83C572 USB controller> on uhci0 usb0: USB revision 1.0 uhub0: VIA UHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1 uhub0: 2 ports with 2 removable, self powered chip1: <VIA 82C586B ACPI interface> at device 7.3 on pci0 ed0: <NE2000 PCI Ethernet (RealTek 8029)> port 0xe800-0xe81f irq 9 atdevice 10.0 on pci0 ed0: address 52:54:05:de:73:1b, type NE2000 (16 bit) isa0: too many dependant configs (8) isa0: unexpected small tag 14 fdc0: <NEC 72065B or clone> at port 0x3f0-0x3f5,0x3f7 irq 6 drq 2 on isa0fdc0: FIFO enabled, 8 bytes threshold fd0: <1440-KB 3.5" drive> on fdc0 drive 0 atkbdc0: <keyboard controller (i8042)> at port 0x60-0x64 on isa0 atkbd0: <AT Keyboard> flags 0x1 irq 1 on atkbdc0 kbd0 at atkbd0 psm0: <PS/2 Mouse> irq 12 on atkbdc0 psm0: model Generic PS/2 mouse, device ID 0 vga0: <Generic ISA VGA> at port 0x3c0-0x3df iomem 0xa0000-0xbffff on isa0sc0: <System console> at flags 0x1 on isa0 sc0: VGA <16 virtual consoles, flags=0x300> sio0 at port 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4 flags 0x10 on isa0 sio0: type 16550A sio1 at port 0x2f8-0x2ff irq 3 on isa0 sio1: type 16550A ppc0: <Parallel port> at port 0x378-0x37f irq 7 on isa0 ppc0: SMC-like chipset (ECP/EPP/PS2/NIBBLE) in COMPATIBLE mode ppc0: FIFO with 16/16/15 bytes threshold ppbus0: IEEE1284 device found /NIBBLEProbing for PnP devices on ppbus0: plip0: <PLIP network interface> on ppbus0 lpt0: <Printer> on ppbus0 lpt0: Interrupt-driven port ppi0: <Parallel I/O> on ppbus0ad0: 8063MB <IBM-DHEA-38451> [16383/16/63] at ata0-master using UDMA33 ad2: 8063MB <IBM-DHEA-38451> [16383/16/63] at ata1-master using UDMA33 acd0: CDROM <DELTA OTC-H101/ST3 F/W by OIPD> at ata0-slave using PIO4 Mounting root from ufs:/dev/ad0s1a swapon: adding /dev/ad0s1b as swap device Automatic boot in progress... /dev/ad0s1a: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS /dev/ad0s1a: clean, 48752 free (552 frags, 6025 blocks, 0.9% fragmentation)/dev/ad0s1f: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS /dev/ad0s1f: clean, 128997 free (21 frags, 16122 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)/dev/ad0s1g: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS/dev/ad0s1g: clean, 3036299 free (43175 frags, 374073 blocks, 1.3% fragmentation)/dev/ad0s1e: filesystem CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS /dev/ad0s1e: clean, 128193 free (17 frags, 16022 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)Doing initial network setup: hostname. ed0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 inet 192.168.0.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255 inet6 fe80::5054::5ff::fede:731b%ed0 prefixlen 64 tentative scopeid 0x1 ether 52:54:05:de:73:1blo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 16384 inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x8 inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000 Additional routing options: IP gateway=YES TCP keepalive=YESrouting daemons:. additional daemons: syslogd. Doing additional network setup:. Starting final network daemons: creating ssh RSA host key Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub. The key fingerprint is: cd:76:89:16:69:0e:d0:6e:f8:66:d0:07:26:3c:7e:2d email@example.com creating ssh DSA host key Generating public/private dsa key pair.Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub. The key fingerprint is: f9:a1:a9:47:c4:ad:f9:8d:52:b8:b8:ff:8c:ad:2d:e6 firstname.lastname@example.org ELF ldconfig path: /usr/lib /usr/lib/compat /usr/X11R6/lib/usr/local/lib a.out ldconfig path: /usr/lib/aout /usr/lib/compat/aout /usr/X11R6/lib/aout starting standard daemons: inetd cron sshd usbd sendmail.Initial rc.i386 initialization:. rc.i386 configuring syscons: blank_time screensaver moused. Additional ABI support: linux. Local package initialization:. Additional TCP options:. FreeBSD/i386 (k6-2.example.com) (ttyv0)login: rpratt Password:
Generating the RSA and DSA keys may take some time on slower machines. This happensonly on the initial boot-up of a new installation. Subsequent boots will be faster.
If the X server has been configured and a Default Desktop chosen, it can be started bytyping startx at the command line.
Once the install procedure has finished, you will be able to start FreeBSD by typingsomething like this to the SRM prompt:
This instructs the firmware to boot the specified disk. To make FreeBSD bootautomatically in the future, use these commands:
>>> SET BOOT_OSFLAGS A>>> SET BOOT_FILE ''>>>
The boot messages will be similar (but not identical) to those produced by FreeBSDbooting on the i386™.
It is important to properly shutdown the operating system. Do not just turn off power.First, become a superuser by typing su at the command line andentering the root password. This will work only if the user isa member of the wheel group. Otherwise, login as
The operating system has halted. Please press any key to reboot.
It is safe to turn off the power after the shutdown command has been issued and themessage ``Please press any key to reboot'' appears. If any key is pressed instead ofturning off the power switch, the system will reboot.
You could also use the Ctrl+Alt+
This, and other documents, can be downloaded from
For questions about FreeBSD, read the